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Revisiting the Age-Old Concepts on 'Acid-Peptic-Disorders'

Dr. Vijay Singh Chauhan, Dr. Naresh Khemani

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Clinical Usage: General Uses: Kokum fruits and its butter are associated with Indian culture for more than 35 centuries. While Charak considers it to be a powerful anti-dysentric astringent, tradit- ionally, its external use as a skin emollient has stood the test of time. Bhav Prakash Nighantu claims Kokum to be a wonderful remedy in improving appetite; controlling hemorrhoids and cardiac diseases. It quenches thirst by its Pittahara properties; controls the generalized burning sensation in body caused by Peripheral Neuritis and subdues spasmodic abdominal pains caused by hyperacidity.

Pharmacology (Extra): Hydroxycitric acid contained in Kokum has been shown to have fat regulating action. It was discovered that fat synthesis could be blocked if citrate lyase were inhibited.

(5)Indian Name: Yashtimadhu /Mulethi
English Name: Liquorice
Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Part Used: Roots and runners, either unpeeled or peeled.

Phytochemistry: The main constituents are glycyrrhizin (madhuyastin) the potassium and calcium salts of glytcyrrhetinic acid. Flavonoid rich fractions include liquirtin, isoliquertin (a chalcone) liquiritigenin and rhamnoliquirilin. The Indian roots show various 2-methylisoflavones, and an unusal coumarin, C.liquocoumarin, 6-acetyl-5-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin. Asparagine is also found.

Ayurvedic Properties: Guna: Guru, Snigdha; Rasa: Madhura; Veerya: Sheeta; Vipaka: Madhura; Dosha: Tridoshahara; Karma: Vrishya, Chakshushya, Vranar- opana, Varnakara, Kanthya, Rochana, Kasaswasahara.

Pharmacology: Extensive reports are available on modern pharmacological research on this drug supporting its claim in older literature as a broad spectrum entity in many pharmacopoeiae. Recent studies report the anti-inflammatory action of glycyrrhetinic acid (a hydrolysis product of glycyrrhizin) and its derivative in the rat paw and cotton-pellet test. Both liquorice extract and glycyrrhetinic acid are shown to have desoxycorticosterene, and ACTH-like effects, though with less toxicity than cortisone, encouraging its use as an antiarthritic agent, in Addison’s disease, and Simmond’s disease. Deglyrrhiznised liquorice is used in peptic ulcer. Glycyrrhizin (L II) and glycyrhetic acid (L III) prevented the development of experimental cirrhosis in rats. Triglycerides accumulation in the liver glycogen increased significantly in rats treated with L III. Effects of L II and its congeners have been studied on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Antioxidative action plays an important role in the antihepatocytic activity of L III. The effectiveness of 11-deoxy-glycyrrhetinic acid hydrogen maleate (L IV) against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride has also been demonstrated

Clinical Usage: In view of the highly acclaimed Sandhankar (healing promotion) activity of Yastimadhu, it is invariably used in chronic dyspepsias and ulcers to facilitate the repair of damaged gastro-intestinal mucosa, which is always complemented by its anti-inflammatory effect.

In Ayurveda, it is used extensively as a demulcent, mild expectorant and anti-inflammatory agent. It relieves ‘vata’ and ‘kapha’ inflammations, it is also used in eye diseases, throat infections, symptomatic relief in peptic ulcer, and as an antiarthritic agent.

(6)Indian Name: Kapurkachari

English Name: Spiked Ginger Lilly

Botanical Name: Hedychium spicatum

Parts Used: Rhizome

Phytochemistry: The dried rhizome of the plant contains essential oil, starch, resins organic acids and a glycoside; albumen and saccharine are also present. The essential oil has ethyl ester of p-methoxy cinnamic acid, d-sabirene cineole, sesquiterpenes and pentadecane methyl paracumarine acetate. It contains ß-sitosterol and its ß-D-glycoside.

Ayurvedic Properties: Guna: Laghu, Tikshna. Rasa: Katu, Tikta, Kashaya. Veerya: Ushna. Vipaka: Katu. Dosha: Kaphaghna, Vataghna. Karma: Mukhavairasyanashini, Durgandhyahara, Kasaghna, Hikkahara, Chhardihara, Shoth- ahara.

Pharmacology: In preliminary pharmacological studies the drug is found to have a vasodilatory effect on coronary vessels, mild hypotensive property and a non-specific antispasmodic effect on smooth muscles. Studies on the essential oil of rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum reveal that these oils possess a mild tranquilising effect of short duration. The crude ethanolic extract of rhizomes possesses anti-inflammatory activity.

Clinical Usage: It is primarily used in Ayurvedic antacids to counteract the abdominal pain and discomfort caused by dyspepsias and ulcers.

The rootstalk is useful in local inflammations, Nausea, asthma, bronchitis, hiccups, and in pain. The rhizome of the plant is said to be carminative, stimulant and a tonic. It has been described as useful; specially as an antiasthamatic agent. Clinical trials have been conducted in tropical eosinophilia, with promising results. It counteracts bad mouth taste and smell.

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